Chapter 2

The Planting of English America



The Spanish were at Santa Fe in 1610.

The French were at Quebec in 1608.

The English were at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.


England's Imperial Stirrings

King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the English Protestant Reformation, and intensifying the rivalry with Catholic Spain.


Elizabeth Energizes England

In 1580, Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe, plundering and returning with his ship loaded with Spanish booty.  He had a profit of about 4,600%. 

When the English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada, Spain's empirical dreams and fighting spirit had been weakened - helping to ensure the English's naval dominance over the North Atlantic.


England on the Eve of an Empire

An economic depression that hit England in the later part of the 1500s caused many people to lose their homes. This, coupled with peace with the Spanish, set the stage for the English to start moving to North America.


England Plants the Jamestown Seedling

In 1606, a joint-stock company, known as the Virginia Company of London, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World.  The company landed in Jamestown on May 24, 1607.

In 1608, Captain John Smith took over the town and forced the settlers into line.

By 1609, of the 400 settlers who came to Virginia, only 60 survived the "starving winter" of 1609-1610.


Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake

Lord De La Warr reached Jamestown in 1610 with supplies and military.  He started the First Anglo-Powhatan War when he started raiding and burning Indian villages.

The Indians were again defeated in the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644.

By 1685, the English considered the Powhatan people to be extinct.


The Indian's New World

Disease was the biggest killer of Indians and their cultures. It took a particularly high tool on elderly Indians, which led to the extinction of cultures.


Virginia: Child of Tobacco

John Rolfe married Pocahontas in 1614, ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War.

In 1619, self-government was made in Virginia.  The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses

King James I didn't trust the House of Burgesses and so in 1624, he made Virginia a colony of England, directly under his control.

Maryland: Catholic Haven

Maryland was formed in 1634 by Lord Baltimore.

Maryland was made for a refuge for the Catholics to escape the wrath of the Protestant English government.

The Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative group in Maryland, granted toleration to all Christians.


The West Indies: Way Station to mainland America

By the mid-17th Century, England had secured its claim to several West Indian Islands. 

Sugar was, by far, the major crop on the Indian Islands.

To support the massive sugar crops, millions of African slaves were imported.  By 1700, the ratio of black slaves to white settlers in the English West Indies was 4:1.  In order to control the large number of slaves, the Barbados Slave Code of 1661 denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves.


Colonizing the Carolinas

Civil war plagued England in the 1640s. 

In 1707, the Savannah Indians decided to end their alliance with the Carolinians and migrate to the back country of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where a new colony founded by Quakers under William Penn promised better relations.  Almost all of the Indians were killed in raids before they could depart - in 1710.

Rice became the primary export of the Carolinas.


Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony

The English founded Georgia to primarily serve as a buffer to protect the Carolinas from the Spanish in Florida and the French in Louisiana.

Georgia was founded in 1733.



1558: Elizabeth I becomes queen of England

1565-1590: English crush Irish uprising

1577: Drake circumnavigates the globe

1585: Raleigh founds Roanoke colony

1588: England defeats Spanish Armada

1603: James I becomes king of England

1604: Spain and England sign peace treaty

1607: Virginia colony founded at Jamestown

1612: Rolfe perfects tobacco culture in Virginia

1614: First Anglo-Powhatan War ends

1619: First Africans arrive in Jamestown.  Virginia House of Burgesses established

1624: Virginia becomes a royal colony

1634: Maryland colony founded

1640s: Large-scale slave-labor system established in English West Indies

1644: Second Anglo-Powhatan War

1649: Act of Toleration in Maryland.  Charles I beheaded; Cromwell rules England

1660: Charles II restored to English throne

1661: Barbados slave code adopted

1670: Carolina colony created

1711-1713: Tuscarora War in North Carolina

1712: North Carolina formally separates from South Carolina

1715-1716: Yamasee War in South Carolina

1733: Georgia colony founded


The Thirteen Original Colonies



Founded By



London Co.


New Hampshire

John Mason and Others









F. Gorges



Lord Baltimore



Mass. Emigrants


New Haven

Mass. Emigrants


Rhode Island

R. Williams





North Carolina



New York

Duke of York


New Jersey

Berkeley and Carteret



Eight Nobles



William Penn



Oglethorpe and others



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